Motility is important for virulence, biofilm formation, and the environmental adaptation of many bacteria. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) contains two flagellar systems that are responsible for motility, and are tightly regulated by transcription regulators and sigma factors. In this study, we identified a novel transcription factor, VPA1701, which regulates the swarming motility of V. parahaemolyticus. The VPA1701 deletion mutant (ΔVPA1701) eliminated the swarming motility on the surface of BHI agar plates and reduced colonization in infant rabbits. RNA-seq assays, confirmed by qRT-PCR, indicated that VPA1701 regulated the expression of lateral flagellar cluster genes. Further analyses revealed that VPA1701 directly binds to the promoter region of the flgBCDEFGHIJKL cluster to regulate the expression of lateral flagellar genes. CalR was originally identified as a repressor for the swarming motility of V. parahaemolyticus, and it was inhibited by calcium. In this study, we found that VPA1701 could inhibit the expression of the calR gene to increase the swarming motility of V. parahaemolyticus. Calcium downregulated the expression of calR, indicating that calcium could increase swarming motility of ΔVPA1701 by inhibiting calR. Thus, this study illustrates how the transcription factor VPA1701 regulates the expression of lateral flagellar genes and calR to control the swarming motility of V. parahaemolyticus.