Nanoparticles have been employed to develop nanosensors and drug carriers that accumulate in tumors. Thus, it is necessary to control the particle size, surface potential, and biodegradability of these nanoparticles for effective tumor accumulation and safe medical application. In this study, to form a nanoparticle platform suitable for diagnostic and drug delivery system (DDS) applications, peptides composed of aromatic amino acid residues were designed and synthesized based on the radiation crosslinking mechanism of proteins. The peptide nanoparticles, which were produced by γ-ray irradiation, displayed a positive surface potential, maintained biodegradability, and were stable in water and phosphoric buffer solution during actual diagnosis. The surface potential of the peptide nanoparticles could be changed to negative by using a fluorescent labeling reagent, so that the fluorescent-labeled peptide nanoparticles were uptaken by HeLa cells. The radiation-crosslinked nanoparticles can be applied as a platform for tumor-targeting diagnostics and DDS therapy.