In unicellular photosynthetic organisms, circadian rhythm is tightly linked to gating of cell cycle progression, and is entrained by light signal. As several organisms obtain a fitness advantage when the external light/dark cycle matches their endogenous period, and aging alters circadian rhythms, senescence phenotypes of the microalga Euglena gracilis of different culture ages were characterized with respect to the cell division cycle. We report here the effects of prolonged-stationary-phase conditions on the cell division cycles of E. gracilis under non-24-h light/dark cycles (T-cycles). Under T-cycles, cells established from 1-month-old and 2-month-old cultures produced lower cell concentrations after cultivation in the fresh medium than cells from 1-week-old culture. This decrease was not due to higher concentrations of dead cells in the populations, suggesting that cells of different culture ages differ in their capacity for cell division. Cells from 1-week-old cultures had a shorter circadian period of their cell division cycle under shortened T-cycles than aged cells. When algae were transferred to free-running conditions after entrainment to shortened T-cycles, the young cells showed the peak growth rate at a time corresponding to the first subjective night, but the aged cells did not. This suggests that circadian rhythms are more plastic in younger E. gracilis cells.