Reference - Detail
|Author||Katase N, Nishimatsu SI, Yamauchi A, Okano S, Fujita S.|
|Title||Establishment of anti-DKK3 peptide for the cancer control in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).|
|Journal||Cancer Cell Int|
BACKGROUND:Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the head and neck. We identified cancer-specific genes in HNSCC and focused on DKK3 expression. DKK3 gene codes two isoforms of proteins (secreted and non-secreted) with two distinct cysteine rich domains (CRDs). It is reported that DKK3 functions as a negative regulator of oncogenic Wnt signaling and, is therefore, considered to be a tumor suppressor gene. However, our series of studies have demonstrated that DKK3 expression is specifically high in HNSCC tissues and cells, and that DKK3 might determine the malignant potentials of HNSCC cells via the activation of Akt. Further analyses strongly suggested that both secreted DKK3 and non-secreted DKK3 could activate Akt signaling in discrete ways, and consequently exert tumor promoting effects. We hypothesized that DKK3 might be a specific druggable target, and it is necessary to establish a DKK3 inhibitor that can inhibit both secreted and non-secreted isoforms of DKK3.
METHODS:Using inverse polymerase chain reaction, we generated mutant expression plasmids that express DKK3 without CRD1, CRD2, or both CRD1 and CRD2 (DKK3ΔC1, DKK3ΔC2, and DKK3ΔC1ΔC2, respectively). These plasmids were then transfected into HNSCC-derived cells to determine the domain responsible for DKK3-mediated Akt activation. We designed antisense peptides using the MIMETEC program, targeting DKK3-specific amino acid sequences within CRD1 and CRD2. The structural models for peptides and DKK3 were generated using Raptor X, and then a docking simulation was performed using CluPro2. Afterward, the best set of the peptides was applied into HNSCC-derived cells, and the effects on Akt phosphorylation, cellular proliferation, invasion, and migration were assessed. We also investigated the therapeutic effects of the peptides in the xenograft models.
RESULTS:Transfection of mutant expression plasmids and subsequent functional analyses revealed that it is necessary to delete both CRD1 and CRD2 to inhibit Akt activation and inhibition of proliferation, migration, and invasion. The inhibitory peptides for CRD1 and CRD2 of DKK3 significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Akt, and consequently suppressed cellular proliferation, migration, invasion and in vivo tumor growth at very low doses.
CONCLUSIONS:This inhibitory peptide represents a promising new therapeutic strategy for HNSCC treatment.
|Human and Animal Cells||HSC-3(RCB1975)|