Aspergillus fumigatus often causes serious health problems. The airway of the human body, the most common initial site of damage, is always exposed to an oxygenated condition, and the oxygen concentration may play a critical role in the virulence of A. fumigatus. In this study, oxygen content, fungal growth, the production of cytotoxic substance(s) in the fungal culture, and their relationship were investigated. Two clinical strains of A. fumigatus were cultured under certain oxygen contents (10, 14 and 20%), and cytotoxicity of their culture filtrates on murine macrophages and their fungal growth were evaluated. The components of these filtrates were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All culture filtrates contained gliotoxin and showed potent cytotoxicity on macrophages at very low concentration. The amount of gliotoxin in the culture filtrate prepared at 10% oxygen was markedly less, but diminutions in fungal growth and cytotoxicity of this culture filtrate were negligible. These results suggest that a well-oxygenated condition is suitable for the production of gliotoxin by A. fumigatus. A significant role of cytotoxic substances(s) other than gliotoxin is also suggested.