A histone-like nucleoid structure (H-NS) is a major component of the bacterial nucleoid and plays a crucial role in the global gene regulation of enteric bacteria. Here, we cloned and characterized the gene for the H-NS-like protein VpaH in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. vpaH encodes a protein of 134 amino acids that shows approximately 55%, 54%, and 41% identities with VicH in Vibrio cholerae, H-NS in V. parahaemolyticus, and H-NS in Escherichia coli, respectively. The vpaH gene was found in only trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains and not in Kanagawa-positive or in trh-negative environmental strains. Moreover, the G+C content of the vpaH gene was 38.6%, which is lower than the average G+C content of the whole genome of this bacterium (45.4%). These data suggest that vpaH was transmitted to trh-possessing V. parahaemolyticus strains by lateral transfer. The vpaH gene was located about 2.6 kb downstream of the trh gene, in the convergent direction of the trh transcription. An in-frame deletion mutant of vpaH lacked motility on semisolid motility assay plates. Western blot analysis and electron microscopy observations revealed that the mutant was deficient in lateral flagella biogenesis, whereas there was no defect in the expression of polar flagella. Additionally, the vpaH mutant showed a decreased adherence to HeLa cells and a decrease in biofilm formation compared with the wild-type strain. Introduction of the vpaH gene in the vpaH-negative strain increased the expression of lateral flagella compared with the wild-type strain. In conclusion, our findings suggest that VpaH affects lateral flagellum biogenesis in trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus strain TH3996.