Yoshida A, Tanaka R, Murakami T, Takahashi Y, Koyanagi Y, Nakamura M, Ito M, Yamamoto N, Tanaka Y.
The potential of a dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in humans was explored with SCID mice reconstituted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). HIV-1-negative normal human PBMC were transplanted directly into the spleens of SCID mice (hu-PBL-SCID-spl mice) together with autologous mature DCs pulsed with either inactivated HIV-1 (strain R5 or X4) or ovalbumin (OVA), followed by a booster injection 5 days later with autologous DCs pulsed with the same respective antigens. Five days later, these mice were challenged intraperitoneally with R5 HIV-1(JR-CSF). Analysis of infection at 7 days postinfection showed that the DC-HIV-1-immunized hu-PBL-SCID-spl mice, irrespective of the HIV-1 isolate used for immunization, were protected against HIV-1 infection. In contrast, none of the DC-OVA-immunized mice were protected. Sera from the DC-HIV-1- but not the DC-OVA-immunized mice inhibited the in vitro infection of activated PBMC and macrophages with R5, but not X4, HIV-1. Upon restimulation with HIV-1 in vitro, the human CD4(+) T cells derived from the DC-HIV-1-immunized mice produced a similar R5 HIV-1 suppressor factor. Neutralizing antibodies against human RANTES, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), IFN-beta, IFN-gamma, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, IL-13, IL-16, MCP-1, MCP-3, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), or TNF-beta failed to reverse the HIV-1-suppressive activity. These results show that inactivated HIV-1-pulsed autologous DCs can stimulate splenic resident human CD4(+) T cells in hu-PBL-SCID-spl mice to produce a yet-to-be-defined, novel soluble factor(s) with protective properties against R5 HIV-1 infection.