RRC ID 12181
Author Nonaka M, Satake H.
Title Urochordate immunity.
Journal Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
Abstract This chapter provides a short review of the immune system of urochordates, the closest living relative of vertebrates. Since adaptive immunity is a unique property of vertebrates, urochordates rely exclusively on innate immunity to recognize and eliminate pathogens. Here we discuss three immune systems of urochordates which show different evolutionary relationship with the vertebrate immune system. Urochordate Toll-like receptors (TLR) show a clear orthologous relationship with vertebrate counterparts, although they show unique characteristics most likely gained in the urochordate lineage. The urochordate complement system also shows orthologous relationship with the vertebrate complement system. From the structural and functional viewpoints, it seems to represent a more primitive state ofthe vertebrate complement system without any major deviation. In contrast, the allorecognition systems of urochordates show no evolutionary relationship with any invertebrate or vertebrate systems, suggesting that they were invented in the urochordate lineage.
Volume 708
Pages 302-10
Published 2010
PMID 21528704
MeSH Amino Acid Sequence Animals Complement System Proteins / immunology Immune System / immunology Immunity, Innate / immunology Molecular Sequence Data Toll-Like Receptors / immunology Urochordata / immunology*
IF 1.76
Times Cited 4
C.intestinalis / (O.japonicus) Wild C. int