Adhesion of cells to surfaces is a basic and important requirement in cell culture and tissue engineering. Here, we designed artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) mimics for efficient cellular attachment, based on mussel adhesive protein (MAP) fusion with biofunctional peptides originating from ECM materials, including fibronectin, laminin, and collagen. Cellular behaviors, including attachment, proliferation, spreading, viability, and differentiation, were investigated with the artificial ECM material-coated surfaces, using three mammalian cell lines (pre-osteoblast, chondrocyte, and pre-adipocyte). All cell lines examined displayed superior attachment, proliferation, spreading, and survival properties on the MAP-based ECM mimics, compared to other commercially available cell adhesion materials, such as poly-L-lysine and the naturally extracted MAP mixture. Additionally, the degree of differentiation of pre-osteoblast cells on MAP-based ECM mimics was increased. These results collectively demonstrate that the artificial ECM mimics developed in the present work are effective cell adhesion materials. Moreover, we expect that the MAP peptide fusion approach can be extended to other functional tissue-specific motifs.