RRC ID 28609
Author Sorimachi H, Hata S, Ono Y.
Title Impact of genetic insights into calpain biology.
Journal J Biochem
Abstract Calpain has long been an enigmatic enzyme, although it is involved in a variety of biological phenomena. Recent progress in calpain genetics has highlighted numerous physiological contexts in which the functions of calpain are of great significance. This review focuses on recent findings in the field of calpain genetics and the importance of calpain function. Calpain is an intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine protease (EC; Clan CA, family C02) found in almost all eukaryotes. It is also present in a few bacteria, but not in archaebacteria. Calpain has limited proteolytic activity; rather, it transforms or modulates the structure and/or activity of its substrates. It is, therefore, referred to as a 'modulator protease'. Within the human genome, 15 genes (CAPN1-3, CAPN5-16) encode a calpain-like protease (CysPc) domain along with several different functional domains. Thus, calpains can be regarded as a distinct family of versatile enzymes that fulfil numerous tasks in vivo. Genetic studies show that a variety of defects in many different organisms, including lethality, muscular dystrophies and gastropathy, actually stem from calpain deficiencies. The cause-effect relationships identified by these studies form the basis for ongoing and future studies regarding the physiological role of calpains.
Volume 150(1)
Pages 23-37
Published 2011-7-1
DOI 10.1093/jb/mvr070
PII mvr070
PMID 21610046
MeSH Animals Calcium / metabolism Calcium-Binding Proteins / genetics Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism Calpain / classification Calpain / genetics* Calpain / metabolism* Eukaryota / enzymology* Humans Mice Muscular Dystrophies / genetics Plants / enzymology Plants / genetics Protein Structure, Tertiary Stomach Ulcer / genetics
IF 2.476
Times Cited 80
DNA material pcDNA3.1-Flag-human-CAPNS1(30K) (RDB08253)