RRC ID 29117
Author Morita Y, Takagi K, Fukuchi-Mizutani M, Ishiguro K, Tanaka Y, Nitasaka E, Nakayama M, Saito N, Kagami T, Hoshino A, Iida S.
Title A chalcone isomerase-like protein enhances flavonoid production and flower pigmentation.
Journal Plant J
Abstract Flavonoids are major pigments in plants, and their biosynthetic pathway is one of the best-studied metabolic pathways. Here we have identified three mutations within a gene that result in pale-colored flowers in the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil). As the mutations lead to a reduction of the colorless flavonoid compound flavonol as well as of anthocyanins in the flower petal, the identified gene was designated enhancer of flavonoid production (EFP). EFP encodes a chalcone isomerase (CHI)-related protein classified as a type IV CHI protein. CHI is the second committed enzyme of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, but type IV CHI proteins are thought to lack CHI enzymatic activity, and their functions remain unknown. The spatio-temporal expression of EFP and structural genes encoding enzymes that produce flavonoids is very similar. Expression of both EFP and the structural genes is coordinately promoted by genes encoding R2R3-MYB and WD40 family proteins. The EFP gene is widely distributed in land plants, and RNAi knockdown mutants of the EFP homologs in petunia (Petunia hybrida) and torenia (Torenia hybrida) had pale-colored flowers and low amounts of anthocyanins. The flavonol and flavone contents in the knockdown petunia and torenia flowers, respectively, were also significantly decreased, suggesting that the EFP protein contributes in early step(s) of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to ensure production of flavonoid compounds. From these results, we conclude that EFP is an enhancer of flavonoid production and flower pigmentation, and its function is conserved among diverse land plant species.
Volume 78(2)
Pages 294-304
Published 2014-4-1
DOI 10.1111/tpj.12469
PMID 24517863
MeSH Anthocyanins / chemistry Anthocyanins / metabolism Biosynthetic Pathways Flavonoids / chemistry Flavonoids / metabolism* Flowers / anatomy & histology Flowers / genetics Flowers / metabolism Gene Expression Regulation, Plant Intramolecular Lyases / genetics Intramolecular Lyases / metabolism Intramolecular Lyases / physiology* Ipomoea / anatomy & histology Ipomoea / genetics Ipomoea / metabolism Molecular Sequence Data Plant Proteins / genetics Plant Proteins / metabolism Plant Proteins / physiology* RNA Interference
IF 6.141
Times Cited 47
Morning Glory EST clones BAC clones AK1 AK26 AK28 AK31 AK33 AK50 AK60 Q0095 Q0101 Q0153 Q0228 Q0580 Q0584 Q0711 Q0877 Q0912 Q1058 Q1326 Q1327 Q1328 Q1330 Q1332 Q1333 Q1334 Q1339 Q1379 Q1385 AK112 Q0357 Q0522 Q0589 Q0627 Q0638 Q0778 Q0904 Q0914 Q0096 Q0465 Q0508 Q0543 Q0598 Q0774 Q1035 Q1386