A Gram-positive actinobacterium, strain RKJ300(T), capable of utilizing p-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol, was isolated from a pesticide-contaminated site in India. The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the isolate were typical of members of the genus Rhodococcus. The DNA G+C content was 72 mol%. Strain RKJ300(T) exhibited the highest level of sequence similarity with Rhodococcus wratislaviensis NCIMB 13082(T) (99.3 %), followed by Rhodococcus opacus DSM 43205(T) (98.8 %), Rhodococcus percolatus MBS1(T) (98.6 %) and Rhodococcus koreensis DNP505(T) (98.1 %). The low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness (49-58 %) with the above micro-organisms, and the differences in the biochemical and physiological properties, suggest that strain RKJ300(T) should be classified within a novel species of the genus Rhodococcus, for which the name Rhodococcus imtechensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RKJ300(T) (=MTCC 7085(T)=JCM 13270(T)).