In Escherichia coli BB26-36, the inhibition of net phospholipid synthesis during glycerol starvation affected cell duplication in a manner that was similar in some respects to that observed during the inhibition of protein synthesis. Ongoing rounds of chromosome replication continued, and cells in the D period divided. The initiation of new rounds of chromosome replication and division of cells in the C period were inhibited. Unlike the inhibition of protein synthesis, however, the accumulation of initiation potential in dnaA and dnaC mutants at the nonpermissive temperature was not affected by the inhibition of phospholipid synthesis. Furthermore, proteins synthesized during the inhibition of phospholipid synthesis can be utilized later for division. The results are consistent with a dual requirement for protein and phospholipid synthesis for both the inauguration of new rounds of chromosome replication and the initiation of septum formation. Once initiated, both processes progress to completion independent of continuous phospholipid and protein synthesis.