Genetic and molecular investigations were carried out with 10 Japanese Drosophila melanogaster strains on P-M system of hybrid dysgenesis. The strains used here were collected in the years from 1952 to 1984 from various natural populations, and have been maintained in our laboratory. The whole genomic Southern hybridization was performed by using the 2.9-kb P element and the internal fragments as probes. Five strains possessed no P element copy and the other 5 strains possessed mainly incomplete P elements which had internal deletions. The former 5 strains were M, 2 of the latter were Q, and the remaining 3 were M' strains. Hikone-R, collected in 1952, had no P element copy, while Hikone-H, collected in 1957, was the earliest observed to possess multicopies of an incomplete P element. This revealed that P elements in Drosophila melanogaster were present more than 30 years ago in Japan, as already shown to have been the case on the American continent.