Yao H, Sundar IK, Ahmad T, Lerner C, Gerloff J, Friedman AE, Phipps RP, Sime PJ, McBurney MW, Guarente L, Rahman I.
Oxidative and carbonyl stress is increased in lungs of smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as in cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed rodent lungs. We previously showed that sirtuin1 (SIRT1), an antiaging protein, is reduced in lungs of CS-exposed mice and patients with COPD and that SIRT1 attenuates CS-induced lung inflammation and injury. It is not clear whether SIRT1 protects against CS-induced lung oxidative stress. Therefore, we determined the effect of SIRT1 on lung oxidative stress and antioxidants in response to CS exposure using loss- and gain-of-function approaches, as well as a pharmacological SIRT1 activation by SRT1720. We found that CS exposure increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in lungs of wild-type (WT) mice, which was further augmented in SIRT1-deficient mice. Furthermore, both SIRT1 genetic overexpression and SRT1720 treatment significantly decreased oxidative stress induced by CS exposure. FOXO3 deletion augmented lipid peroxidation products but reduced antioxidants in response to CS exposure, which was not affected by SRT1720. Interestingly, SRT1720 treatment exhibited a similar effect on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants (i.e., manganese superoxide dismutase, heme oxygenase-1, and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1) in WT and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-deficient mice in response to CS exposure. This indicates that SIRT1 protects against CS-induced oxidative stress, which is mediated by FOXO3, but is independent of Nrf2. Overall, these findings reveal a novel function of SIRT1, which is to reduce CS-induced oxidative stress, and this may contribute to its protective effects against lung inflammation and subsequent development of COPD.