We describe, to our knowledge, the first case of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) caused by the basidiomycetous fungus Schizophyllum commune in an otherwise healthy woman. Bronchoscopic analysis repeatedly disclosed S. commune hyphae in the bronchi of the lingular lobe; these hyphae were originally misidentified as Aspergillus because the presence of clamp connections was overlooked. A lingular infiltrate with ectatic proximal bronchi, eosinophilia, an elevated serum level of IgE, and antibodies to S. commune supported the diagnosis. It is sometimes difficult to isolate and identify S. commune in clinical specimens, and hence only a limited number of cases of ABPM might have been correctly diagnosed in the past. We suspect, therefore, that some cases of ABPM caused by an allergic reaction to S. commune may be misdiagnosed as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or eosinophilic pneumonia of unknown origin. The significance of S. commune in allergic bronchopulmonary diseases is discussed.