Cytoskeleton inhibitors were used to study morphogenesis in the pathogenic and dimorphic fungus Candida albicans. Nocodazole is a specific microtubule inhibitor and chloropropham (CIPC), at high concentrations, is an inhibitor of microtubules and microfilaments. Distribution of microtubules and microfilaments was studied by immunofluorescence techniques using anti-tubulin antibody with FITC-conjugated secondary antibody, and by staining with Rh-phalloidin. Nocodazole did not arrest apical cell elongation at a concentration (20 micrograms ml-1) that inhibited nuclear division and migration. Cytoplasmic and nuclear microtubules disappeared within 30 min in filamentous cells under these conditions. However, the Rh-phalloidin-stained actin granules which were localized in the tips of filamentous cells, and the microfilaments, were arranged normally at this concentration of nocodazole. Growth, and normal distribution of microtubules and microfilaments, were inhibited by a high concentration (200 micrograms ml-1) of CIPC. At a concentration (100 micrograms ml-1) of CIPC that permitted nuclear division, apical cell elongation was arrested, and filamentous growth was converted into yeast growth. At this concentration of CIPC, microtubules were distributed normally in filamentous cells. Long microfilaments were not observed, and actin granules did not localize in the tips of filamentous cells, but were distributed throughout the cytoplasmic cortex. Our results show that cytoplasmic microtubules are not essential for the elongation of filamentous cell tips but that microfilaments are apparently essential for this process.