We examined the molecular phylogeny and ultrastructure of Chlorogonium and related species to establish the natural taxonomy at the generic level. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA and RUBISCO LSU (rbcL) gene sequences revealed two separate clades of Chlorogonium from which Chlorogonium (Cg.) fusiforme Matv. was robustly separated. One clade comprised Cg. neglectum Pascher and Cg. kasakii Nozaki, whereas the other clade included the type species Cg. euchlorum (Ehrenb.) Ehrenb., Cg. elongatum (P. A. Dang.) Francé, and Cg. capillatum Nozaki, M. Watanabe et Aizawa. On the basis of unique ultrastructural characteristics, we described Gungnir Nakada gen. nov. comprising three species: G. neglectum (Pascher) Nakada comb. nov., G. mantoniae (H. Ettl) Nakada comb. nov., and G. kasakii (Nozaki) Nakada comb. nov. We also emended Chlorogonium as a monophyletic genus composed of Cg. euchlorum, Cg. elongatum, and Cg. capillatum. Because Cg. fusiforme was distinguished from the redefined Chlorogonium and Gungnir by the structure of its starch plate, which is associated with pyrenoids, we reclassified this species as Rusalka fusiformis (Matv.) Nakada gen. et comb. nov.