Haldimann A, Wanner BL.
Conditional-replication, integration, excision, and retrieval plasmid-host systems for gene structure-function studies of bacteria.
We have developed a series of powerful and versatile conditional-replication, integration, and modular (CRIM) plasmids. CRIM plasmids can be replicated at medium or high copy numbers in different hosts for making gene (or mutant) libraries. They can be integrated in single copies into the chromosomes of Escherichia coli and related bacteria to study gene function under normal physiological conditions. They can be excised from the chromosome, e.g., to verify that phenotypes are caused by their presence. Furthermore, they can be retrieved singly or en masse for subsequent molecular analyses. CRIM plasmids are integrated into the chromosome by site-specific recombination at one of five different phage attachment sites. Integrants are selected as antibiotic-resistant transformations. Since CRIM plasmids encode different forms of resistance, several can be used together in the same cell for stable expression of complex metabolic or regulatory pathways from diverse sources. Following integration, integrants are stably maintained in the absence of antibiotic selection. Each CRIM plasmid has a polylinker or one of several promoters for ectopic expression of the inserted DNA. Their modular design allows easy construction of new variants with different combinations of features. We also report a series of easily curable, low-copy-number helper plasmids encoding all the requisite Int proteins alone or with the respective Xis protein. These helper plasmids facilitate integration, excision ("curing"), or retrieval of the CRIM plasmids.
Attachment Sites, Microbiological
DNA Nucleotidyltransferases / genetics
DNA Nucleotidyltransferases / physiology
DNA, Bacterial / genetics
Escherichia coli / genetics*
Integrases / genetics
Integrases / physiology
Molecular Sequence Data
|Prokaryotes E. coli