Zhang F, Huang LY, Zhang F, Ali J, Cruz CV, Zhuo DL, Du ZL, Li ZK, Zhou YL.
BACKGROUND:Bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is a devastating rice disease worldwide. Xa39 is a resistance (R) gene with a broad-spectrum hypersensitive response (BSHR) to Xoo. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of resistance mediated by Xa39 remain unclear. In this study, the transcriptome profiling of a rice line carrying Xa39 and its parents at the early stage of Xoo infection were investigated.RESULTS:A rice introgression line H471 carrying Xa39 exhibited a typical local hypersensitive response phenotype, accompanied by programmed cell death after inoculation with the Xoo Philippines' race 9b. Transcriptome profiling of H471 and its parents at 1 and 2 days post-inoculation was performed using RNA sequencing. In total, 306 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in H471 compared with its recurrent parent Huang-Hua-Zhan after inoculation with Xoo. Among them, 121 (39.5%) genes, with functional enrichments that were related to defense response, protein amino acid phosphorylation, and apoptosis, were found to be constitutively expressed. The other 185 (60.5%) genes, with GO terms that belonged to defense response, were significantly responsive to Xoo infection in H471. Ten up-regulated and 12 down-regulated genes encoding intracellular immune receptors were identified in H471 compared with Huang-Hua-Zhan. LOC_Os11g37759, which was located in the fine-mapping region harboring Xa39, is a Xa39 candidate gene. The putative BSHR-related co-regulatory networks were constructed using 33 DEGs from four functional groups, including gibberellic acid receptors and brassinosteroid regulators, which were differentially co-expressed with LOC_Os11g37759 in infected H471. Our results indicated that there might be cross-talk between the Xa39-mediated signal transduction cascades and the GA/BR signaling pathway, and that the defense mechanism was related to diverse kinases, transcription factors, post-translational regulation, and R genes.CONCLUSIONS:The present study provides the comprehensive transcriptome profile of a rice introgression line carrying Xa39 and its parents, and identifies a set of DEGs involved in BSHR mediated by Xa39. These data provide novel insights into the regulatory networks of plant disease resistance mediated by R genes, and the identified DEGs will serve as candidates for Xa39 cloning and for further understanding the molecular mechanism of BSHR.