Reference - Detail
|Author||Miyashita A, Takahashi S, Ishii K, Sekimizu K, Kaito C.|
|Title||Primed Immune Responses Triggered by Ingested Bacteria Lead to Systemic Infection Tolerance in Silkworms.|
In the present study, we examined whether microorganisms collaterally ingested by insects with their food activate the innate immune system to confer systemic resistance against subsequent bacterial invasion. Silkworms orally administered heat-killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells showed resistance against intra-hemolymph infection by P. aeruginosa. Oral administration of peptidoglycans, cell wall components of P. aeruginosa, conferred protective effects against P. aeruginosa infection, whereas oral administration of lipopolysaccharides, bacterial surface components, did not. In silkworms orally administered heat-killed P. aeruginosa cells, P. aeruginosa growth was inhibited in the hemolymph, and mRNA amounts of the antimicrobial peptides cecropin A and moricin were increased in the hemocytes and fat body. Furthermore, the amount of paralytic peptide, an insect cytokine that activates innate immune reactions, was increased in the hemolymph of silkworms orally administered heat-killed P. aeruginosa cells. These findings suggest that insects sense bacteria present in their food by peptidoglycan recognition, which activates systemic immune reactions to defend the insects against a second round of infection.
|MeSH||Adaptive Immunity* Administration, Oral Animals Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / biosynthesis Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / genetics Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / immunology* Bombyx / genetics Bombyx / immunology* Bombyx / microbiology Fat Body / cytology Fat Body / immunology Fat Body / microbiology Gene Expression Hemocytes / cytology Hemocytes / immunology Hemocytes / microbiology Hemolymph / cytology Hemolymph / immunology Hemolymph / microbiology Hot Temperature Insect Proteins / biosynthesis Insect Proteins / genetics Insect Proteins / immunology* Larva / genetics Larva / immunology Larva / microbiology Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology Neuropeptides / biosynthesis Neuropeptides / genetics Neuropeptides / immunology* Pseudomonas aeruginosa / chemistry Pseudomonas aeruginosa / immunology|