We previously isolated PnMADS1, a MADS-box transcription factor and member of the functionally diverse StMADS11 clade of the MADS-box family, from Pharbitis nil, which is a typical SD plant. However, its precise function remained unclear. To investigate the biological role of PnMADS1, and especially its involvement in flowering, we constructed transgenic P. nil plants that overexpresses or underexpresses PnMADS1. PnMADS1-RNAi transformants had an increased number of flower buds, whereas overexpression of PnMADS1 led to a decrease in the number of flower buds, although both transgenic plants maintained the photoperiodic responses of flowering. These results suggest that PnMADS1 negatively regulates floral evocation from the vegetative phase to the reproductive phase but it has no essential role in floral induction by photoperiodic signals. Results of yeast two-hybrid experiments revealed that PnMADS1 can interact with itself, suggesting that this protein functions in floral evocation as a homodimer. PnMADS1 also interacts with PnSAH3, an AP1-clade protein, suggesting that PnMADS1 has a functional role in flower formation as a heterodimer with other MADS-box protein(s).