Sweetpotato leaves (Ipomoea batatas L.) contain a high content of polyphenolics that consist of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid. We investigated the suppression of the proliferation of selected human cancer cells by phenolic compounds isolated from sweetpotato leaf. The human cancer cells used in this research included a stomach cancer (Kato III), a colon cancer (DLD-1), and a promyelocytic leukemia cell (HL-60). Caffeic acid and di- and tricaffeoylquinic acids dose-dependently depressed cancer cell proliferation, and the difference in sensitivity between caffeoylquinic acid derivatives and each kind of cancer cell was observed. Specifically, 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid effectively depressed the growth of three kinds of cancer cells, and caffeic acid had an exceptionally higher effect against HL-60 cells than other di- and tricaffeoylquinic acids. In attempting to clarify the mechanism of growth suppression with the addition of the apoptotic inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide, we observed that the nuclear granulation in 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid-treated HL-60 cells suggested apoptosis induction. This effect was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, an increase of caspase-3 activity, and expression of c-Jun. Growth suppression of HL-60 cells by 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid was determined to be the result of apoptotic death of the cells. These results indicate that 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid may have potential for cancer prevention.