RRC ID 45748
Author Hou NS, Gutschmidt A, Choi DY, Pather K, Shi X, Watts JL, Hoppe T, Taubert S.
Title Activation of the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response by lipid disequilibrium without disturbed proteostasis in vivo.
Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Abstract The Mediator is a conserved transcriptional coregulator complex required for eukaryotic gene expression. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Mediator subunit mdt-15 is essential for the expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and ingestion-associated stress responses. mdt-15 loss of function causes defects in reproduction and mobility and shortens lifespan. In the present study, we find that worms with mutated or depleted mdt-15 (mdt-15 worms) exhibit decreased membrane phospholipid desaturation, especially in phosphatidylcholine. Accordingly, mdt-15 worms exhibit disturbed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, as indicated by a constitutively activated ER unfolded protein response (UPR(ER)). Activation of this stress response is only partially the consequence of reduced membrane lipid desaturation, implicating other mdt-15-regulated processes in maintaining ER homeostasis. Interestingly, mdt-15 inactivation or depletion of the lipid metabolism enzymes stearoyl-CoA-desaturases (SCD) and S-adenosyl methionine synthetase (sams-1) activates the UPR(ER) without promoting misfolded protein aggregates. Moreover, these worms exhibit wild-type sensitivity to chemically induced protein misfolding, and they do not display synthetic lethality with mutations in UPR(ER) genes, which cause protein misfolding. Therefore, the constitutively activated UPR(ER) in mdt-15, SCD, and sams-1 worms is not the consequence of proteotoxic stress but likely is the direct result of changes in ER membrane fluidity and composition. Together, our data suggest that the UPR(ER) is induced directly upon membrane disequilibrium and thus monitors altered ER homeostasis.
Volume 111(22)
Pages E2271-80
Published 2014-6-3
DOI 10.1073/pnas.1318262111
PII 1318262111
PMID 24843123
PMC PMC4050548
MeSH Acyl Coenzyme A / metabolism Animals Caenorhabditis elegans / genetics Caenorhabditis elegans / metabolism* Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / genetics Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / metabolism* Cardiolipins / metabolism Endoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism* Fatty Acids / metabolism Homeostasis / physiology Lipids / biosynthesis Mitochondria / metabolism Phosphatidylcholines / metabolism Phosphatidylethanolamines / metabolism Proteostasis Deficiencies / metabolism* Transcription Factors / genetics Transcription Factors / metabolism* Unfolded Protein Response / physiology*
IF 9.412
Times Cited 71
C.elegans tm2182