Ishii A, Kawai M, Noda H, Kato H, Takeda K, Asakawa K, Ichikawa Y, Sasanami T, Tanaka K, Kimura Y.
When exposed to sublethal high temperatures, budding yeast cells can survive for a period of time; however, a sufficient amount of ubiquitin is necessary for this survival. To understand the nature of the stress, we examined the morphological changes in yeast cells, focusing on the vacuoles. Changes in vacuolar morphology were notable, and ruffled vacuolar membranes, accelerated invaginations of vacuolar membranes, and vesicle-like formations were observed. These changes occurred in the absence of Atg1, Atg9 or Ivy1 but appeared to require endosomal sorting proteins, such as Vps23, Vps24 or Pep12. Furthermore, the serial sections of the vacuoles analysed using an electron microscopic analysis revealed that spherical invaginated structures were linked together in a vacuole. Because degradation of cell surface proteins is induced from heat stress, fusion of endosomal and vacuolar membranes might occur frequently in heat-stressed cells, and yeast cells might be able to cope with a rapid increase in vacuolar surface area by such invaginations.