Takeno M, Kitagawa S, Yamanaka J, Teramoto M, Tomita H, Shirai N, Itoh S, Hida S, Hayakawa K, Onozaki K, Takii T.
The risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is linked to environmental and genetic factors. Cigarette smoking is an established environmental risk factor for the disease that contributes to its development and severity. Previously, we found that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), both mainstream and sidestream, aggravates collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA), which was observed following either intraperitoneal inoculation or nasal exposure. In the present study, we aimed to identify the compound in CSC, which aggravates CIA. By sequential fractionation and analysis, extraction with water/ether in different pH values, silica gel column chromatography, TLC, octadecyl silica (ODS) HPLC, GC/MS, and NMR, the active compound was identified as 5-hydroxy-2-methylpyridine (5H2MP). Its isomer 2-hydroxy-3-methylpyridine, but not 3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridine, was also active. 5H2MP was not mutagenic, and did not exhibit aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent activity. Our data help clarify the mechanism underlying the pathogenic effects of cigarette smoking on RA.