Toda E, Koiso N, Takebayashi A, Ichikawa M, Kiba T, Osakabe K, Osakabe Y, Sakakibara H, Kato N, Okamoto T.
Technology involving the targeted mutagenesis of plants using programmable nucleases has been developing rapidly and has enormous potential in next-generation plant breeding. Notably, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (Cas9) (CRISPR-Cas9) system has paved the way for the development of rapid and cost-effective procedures to create new mutant populations in plants1,2. Although genome-edited plants from multiple species have been produced successfully using a method in which a Cas9-guide RNA (gRNA) expression cassette and selectable marker are integrated into the genomic DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation or particle bombardment3, CRISPR-Cas9 integration increases the chance of off-target modifications4, and foreign DNA sequences cause legislative concerns about genetically modified organisms5. Therefore, DNA-free genome editing has been developed, involving the delivery of preassembled Cas9-gRNA ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) into protoplasts derived from somatic tissues by polyethylene glycol-calcium (PEG-Ca2+)-mediated transfection in tobacco, Arabidopsis, lettuce, rice6, Petunia7, grapevine, apple8 and potato9, or into embryo cells by biolistic bombardment in maize10 and wheat11. However, the isolation and culture of protoplasts is not feasible in most plant species and the frequency of obtaining genome-edited plants through biolistic bombardment is relatively low. Here, we report a genome-editing system via direct delivery of Cas9-gRNA RNPs into plant zygotes. Cas9-gRNA RNPs were transfected into rice zygotes produced by in vitro fertilization of isolated gametes12 and the zygotes were cultured into mature plants in the absence of selection agents, resulting in the regeneration of rice plants with targeted mutations in around 14-64% of plants. This efficient plant-genome-editing system has enormous potential for the improvement of rice as well as other important crop species.