Chang YC, Tu H, Chen JY, Chang CC, Yang SY, Pi H.
Reproduction disrupts stem cell homeostasis in testes of aged male Drosophila via an induced microenvironment.
Stem cells rely on instructive cues from their environment. Alterations in microenvironments might contribute to tissue dysfunction and disease pathogenesis. Germline stem cells (GSCs) and cyst stem cells (CySC) in Drosophila testes are normally maintained in the apical area by the testicular hub. In this study, we found that reproduction leads to accumulation of early differentiating daughters of CySCs and GSCs in the testes of aged male flies, due to hyperactivation of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling to maintain self-renewal gene expression in the differentiating cyst cells. JNK activity is normally required to maintain CySCs in the apical niche. A muscle sheath surrounds the Drosophila testis to maintain its long coiled structure. Importantly, reproduction triggers accumulation of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) Eiger in the testis muscle to activate JNK signaling via the TNF receptor Grindelwald in the cyst cells. Reducing Eiger activity in the testis muscle sheath suppressed reproduction-induced differentiation defects, but had little effect on testis homeostasis of unmated males. Our results reveal that reproduction in males provokes a dramatic shift in the testicular microenvironment, which impairs tissue homeostasis and spermatogenesis in the testes.
Adult Germline Stem Cells / cytology*
Adult Germline Stem Cells / metabolism
Cell Self Renewal
Drosophila Proteins / metabolism
Drosophila melanogaster / cytology
Drosophila melanogaster / physiology*
MAP Kinase Signaling System
Membrane Proteins / metabolism
Sexual Behavior, Animal
Stem Cell Niche
Testis / cytology
Testis / metabolism