RRC ID 57392
Author Veenstra JA, Khammassi H.
Title Rudimentary expression of RYamide in Drosophila melanogaster relative to other Drosophila species points to a functional decline of this neuropeptide gene.
Journal Insect Biochem Mol Biol
Abstract RYamides are arthropod neuropeptides with unknown function. In 2011 two RYamides were isolated from D. melanogaster as the ligands for the G-protein coupled receptor CG5811. The D. melanogaster gene encoding these neuropeptides is highly unusual, as there are four RYamide encoding exons in the current genome assembly, but an exon encoding a signal peptide is absent. Comparing the D. melanogaster gene structure with those from other species, including D. virilis, suggests that the gene is degenerating. RNAseq data from 1634 short sequence read archives at NCBI containing more than 34 billion spots yielded numerous individual spots that correspond to the RYamide encoding exons, of which a large number include the intron-exon boundary at the start of this exon. Although 72 different sequences have been spliced onto this RYamide encoding exon, none codes for the signal peptide of this gene. Thus, the RNAseq data for this gene reveal only noise and no signal. The very small quantities of peptide recovered during isolation and the absence of credible RNAseq data, indicates that the gene is very little expressed, while the RYamide gene structure in D. melanogaster suggests that it might be evolving into a pseudogene. Yet, the identification of the peptides it encodes clearly shows it is still functional. Using region specific antisera, we could localize numerous neurons and enteroendocrine cells in D. willistoni, D. virilis and D. pseudoobscura, but only two adult abdominal neurons in D. melanogaster. Those two neurons project to and innervate the rectal papillae, suggesting that RYamides may be involved in the regulation of water homeostasis.
Volume 83
Pages 68-79
Published 2017-4
DOI 10.1016/j.ibmb.2017.03.001
PII S0965-1748(17)30036-X
PMID 28286046
MeSH Amino Acid Sequence Animals Drosophila Proteins / genetics Drosophila Proteins / metabolism* Drosophila melanogaster / genetics Drosophila melanogaster / metabolism* Gene Expression Molecular Sequence Data Neuropeptides / genetics Neuropeptides / metabolism* Sequence Analysis, RNA Transgenes
IF 3.618
Times Cited 11