RRC ID 57438
Author Onishi T, Watanabe T, Sasaki M, Kamiya Y, Horie M, Tsukano H, Hishida R, Kohno T, Takebayashi H, Baba H, Shibuki K.
Title Acute spatial spread of NO-mediated potentiation during hindpaw ischaemia in mice.
Journal J Physiol
Abstract KEY POINTS:Neuropathic pain spreads spatially beyond the injured sites, and the mechanism underlying the spread has been attributed to inflammation occurring in the spinal cord. However, the spatial spread of spinal/cortical potentiation induced by conduction block of the peripheral nerves can be observed prior to inflammation. In the present study, we found that spreading potentiation and hypersensitivity acutely induced by unilateral hindpaw ischaemia are nitric oxide (NO)-dependent and that NO is produced by ischaemia and quickly diffuses within the spinal cord. We also found that NO production induced by ischaemia is not observed in the presence of an antagonist for group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and that neuronal NO synthase-positive dorsal horn neurons express group II mGluRs. These results suggest strongly that NO-mediated spreading potentiation in the spinal cord is one of the trigger mechanisms for neuropathic pain.
ABSTRACT:Cortical/spinal responses to hindpaw stimulation are bilaterally potentiated by unilateral hindpaw ischaemia in mice. We tested the hypothesis that hindpaw ischaemia produces nitric oxide (NO), which diffuses in the spinal cord to induce spatially spreading potentiation. Using flavoprotein fluorescence imaging, we confirmed that the spreading potentiation in hindpaw responses was induced during ischaemia in the non-stimulated hindpaw. This spreading potentiation was blocked by spinal application of l-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). Furthermore, no spreading potentiation was observed in neural NOS (nNOS) knockout mice. Spinal application of an NO donor was enough to induce cortical potentiation and mechanical hypersensitivity. The spatial distribution of NO during unilateral hindpaw ischaemia was visualized using 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM). An increase in fluorescence derived from the complex of DAF-FM with NO was observed on the ischaemic side of the spinal cord. A similar but smaller increase was also observed on the contralateral side. Somatosensory potentiation after hindpaw ischaemia is known to be inhibited by spinal application of LY354740, an agonist of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). We confirmed that the spinal DAF-FM fluorescence increases during hindpaw ischaemia were not observed in the presence of LY354740. We also confirmed that approximately half of the nNOS-positive neurons in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn expressed mGluR2 mRNA. These results suggest that disinhibition of mGluR2 produces NO which in turn induces a spreading potentiation in a wide area of the spinal cord. Such spreading, along with the consequent non-specific potentiation in the spinal cord, may trigger neuropathic pain.
Volume 597(13)
Pages 3441-3455
Published 2019-7-1
DOI 10.1113/JP277615
PMID 31087329
PMC PMC6851834
MeSH Animals Ischemia / drug therapy Ischemia / metabolism* Male Mice Mice, Inbred C57BL NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester / pharmacology Neuralgia / drug therapy Neuralgia / metabolism* Nitric Oxide / metabolism* Nitric Oxide Synthase / metabolism Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I / metabolism Pain Measurement / methods Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate / metabolism Spinal Cord / drug effects Spinal Cord / metabolism*
IF 4.54
Times Cited 1
DNA material pmGR 2 (RDB13196) pmGR 3 (RDB13197)