Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-borne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Since its discovery in 1950, this bacterium has been isolated in widespread outbreaks and in sporadic cases of gastroenteritis worldwide. Although the exotoxin, thermostable direct hemolysin, had been the focus of extensive research on the pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus, the whole-genome sequencing of a clinical isolate, RIMD2210633 strain, was a breakthrough in this field. The possession of two sets of gene clusters for type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2) was unveiled by that genome project. T3SS is a protein export apparatus that delivers bacterial proteins, called effectors, directly into the host's cytosol, to disrupt host cell function. The subsequent studies have established that T3SS2, which is encoded in an 80 kb pathogenicity island called V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity island (Vp-PAI), is closely related to enteropathogenicity. Recent functional analyses of Vp-PAI-encoded genes revealed the sophisticated mechanisms in V. parahaemolyticus for sensing the intestinal environment and host cell contact, and a dozen T3SS2-exported proteins encoded in Vp-PAI. In this review, we summarize recent advances in V. parahaemolyticus research regarding the control of the expression of Vp-PAI-encoded genes, structural components and the secretory regulation of T3SS2, and the biological activities of T3SS2-exported effectors. Thus, Vp-PAI-encoded T3SS2 becomes an important key in the postgenomic era to shed light on the enteropathogenic mechanism of V. parahaemolyticus.