Reference - Detail
|Author||Buckley DM, Sidik A, Kar RD, Eberhart JK.|
|Title||Differentially sensitive neuronal subpopulations in the central nervous system and the formation of hindbrain heterotopias in ethanol-exposed zebrafish.|
|Journal||Birth Defects Res|
BACKGROUND:A cardinal feature of prenatal ethanol exposure is CNS damage, resulting in a continuum of neurological and behavioral impairments that are described by the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASDs are variable and depend on several factors, including the amount, timing, and duration of prenatal ethanol exposure. To enhance interventions for CNS dysfunction, it is necessary to identify ethanol-sensitive neuronal populations and expand the understanding of factors that modify ethanol teratogenesis.
METHODS:To investigate the susceptibility of different neuronal subtypes, we exposed transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) to several ethanol concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0%), at different hours post fertilization (hpf; 0, 6, or 24 hpf), for various durations (0-24, 0-48, 4-24, 6-24, 6-48,or 24-48 hpf). Following exposure, embryo survival rates were determined, and CNS neurogenesis, differentiation, and patterning were assessed.
RESULTS:Embryo survival rates decrease as ethanol concentrations increase and drastically decline when exposed from 0-24 hpf compared to 4-24 hpf. Abnormal tangential migration of facial motor neurons is observed in isl1:gfp embryos exposed to ethanol concentrations as low as 0.25%, and the formation of IVth ventricle heterotopias are revealed by embryos exposed to ≥1.0% ethanol. Whereas, expression of olig2:dsred and ptf1a:gfp in the cerebellum and spinal cord are largely unaffected. While levels of etv4 mRNA are overtly resistant to ethanol, we observe significant reductions in ptch2 mRNA levels.
CONCLUSIONS:These data show differentially sensitive CNS neuron subpopulations with susceptibility to low levels of ethanol. In addition, these data reveal the formation of ethanol-induced hindbrain heterotopias.
|MeSH||Animals Animals, Genetically Modified / genetics Animals, Genetically Modified / metabolism Embryo, Nonmammalian / embryology* Embryo, Nonmammalian / pathology Ethanol / adverse effects* Ethanol / pharmacology Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders / genetics Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders / metabolism* Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders / pathology Neurogenesis / drug effects* Neurogenesis / genetics Rhombencephalon / embryology* Rhombencephalon / pathology Spinal Cord / embryology* Spinal Cord / pathology Zebrafish / embryology* Zebrafish / genetics|