RRC ID 60252
Author Zhou J, Kang L, Liu C, Niu X, Wang X, Liu H, Zhang W, Liu Z, Latgé JP, Yuan S.
Title Chitinases Play a Key Role in Stipe Cell Wall Extension in the Mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea.
Journal Appl Environ Microbiol
Abstract The elongation growth of the mushroom stipe is a characteristic but not well-understood morphogenetic event of basidiomycetes. We found that extending native stipe cell walls of Coprinopsis cinerea were associated with the release of N-acetylglucosamine and chitinbiose and with chitinase activity. Two chitinases among all detected chitinases from C. cinerea, ChiE1 and ChiIII, reconstituted heat-inactivated stipe wall extension and released N-acetylglucosamine and chitinbiose. Interestingly, both ChiE1 and ChiIII hydrolyze insoluble crystalline chitin powder, while other C. cinerea chitinases do not, suggesting that crystalline chitin components of the stipe cell wall are the target of action for ChiE1 and ChiIII. ChiE1- or ChiIII-reconstituted heat-inactivated stipe walls showed maximal extension activity at pH 4.5, consistent with the optimal pH for native stipe wall extension in vitro; ChiE1- or ChiIII-reconstituted heat-inactivated stipe wall extension activities were associated with stipe elongation growth regions; and the combination of ChiE1 and ChiIII showed a synergism to reconstitute heat-inactivated stipe wall extension at a low action concentration. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the inner surface of acid-induced extended native stipe cell walls and ChiE1- or ChiIII-reconstituted extended heat-inactivated stipe cell walls exhibited a partially broken parallel microfibril architecture; however, these broken transversely arranged microfibrils were not observed in the unextended stipe cell walls that were induced by neutral pH buffer or heat inactivation. Double knockdown of ChiE1 and ChiIII resulted in the reduction of stipe elongation, mycelium growth, and heat-sensitive cell wall extension of native stipes. These results indicate a chitinase-hydrolyzing mechanism for stipe cell wall extension.IMPORTANCE A remarkable feature in the development of basidiomycete fruiting bodies is stipe elongation growth that results primarily from manifold cell elongation. Some scientists have suggested that stipe elongation is the result of enzymatic hydrolysis of cell wall polysaccharides, while other scientists have proposed the possibility that stipe elongation results from nonhydrolytic disruption of the hydrogen bonds between cell wall polysaccharides. Here, we show direct evidence for a chitinase-hydrolyzing mechanism of stipe cell wall elongation in the model mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea that is different from the expansin nonhydrolysis mechanism of plant cell wall extension. We presumed that in the growing stipe cell walls, parallel chitin microfibrils are tethered by β-1,6-branched β-1,3-glucans, and that the breaking of the tether by chitinases leads to separation of these microfibrils to increase their spacing for insertion of new synthesized chitin and β-1,3-glucans under turgor pressure in vivo.
Volume 85(15)
Published 2019-8-1
DOI 10.1128/AEM.00532-19
PII AEM.00532-19
PMID 31126941
PMC PMC6643254
MeSH Acetylglucosamine / metabolism* Agaricales / genetics* Agaricales / metabolism Cell Wall / metabolism* Chitin / metabolism* Chitinases / genetics* Chitinases / metabolism Fungal Proteins / genetics* Fungal Proteins / metabolism Hydrolysis
IF 4.077
Times Cited 1
General Microbes JCM15979