In tissue engineering, precise control of cues in the microenvironment is essential to stimulate cells to undergo bioactivities such as proliferation, differentiation, and matrix production. However, current approaches are inefficient in providing nondepleting cues. In this study, we have developed a novel bioactive hydrogel (HAX-PolyP) capable of enhancing tissue growth by conjugating inorganic polyphosphate chains onto hyaluronic acid macromers. The immobilized polyphosphates provided constant osteoconductive stimulation to the embedded murine osteoblast precursor cells, resulting in up-regulation of osteogenic marker genes and enhanced levels of ALP activity. The osteoconductive activity was significantly higher when compared to those stimulated with free-floating polyphosphates. Even at very low concentrations, immobilization of polyphosphates onto the scaffold allowed sufficient signaling leading to more effective osteoconduction. These results demonstrate the potential of our novel material as an injectable bioactive scaffold, which can be clinically useful for developing bone grafts and bone regeneration applications.