In the present work, a series of composite films were produced from chitosan/poly-L-lysine blend solutions. The surface topography, chemistry, and wettability of composite films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and contact angle assay, respectively. For all composite films, blending with poly-L-lysine induced changes in surface chemistry and wettability. Interestingly, it was also found that increasing poly-L-lysine weight fraction in blend solutions could result in different nanoscaled surface topographic features, which displayed particle-, granule-, or fiber-dominant morphologies. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were cultured on all composite films to evaluate the effects of surface nanotopography, chemistry, and wettability on cell behavior. The observations indicated that MC3T3-E1 cell behavior was affected by surface topography, chemistry, and wettability simultaneously and that cells showed strong responses to surface topography. On fiber-dominant surface, cells fully spread with obvious cytoskeleton organization and exhibited significantly higher level of adhesion and proliferation compared with particle- or granule-dominant surfaces. Furthermore, fiber-dominant surface also induced greater expression of mature osteogenic marker osteocalcin and higher mineralization based on RT-PCR and von Kossa staining. The results suggest that topographic modification of chitosan substratum at the nanoscale may be exploited in regulating cell behavior for its applications in tissue engineering.