Kitazawa Y, Ueta H, Sawanobori Y, Katakai T, Yoneyama H, Ueha S, Matsushima K, Tokuda N, Matsuno K.
Vaccination strategy that induce efficient antibody responses polytopically in most lymph nodes (LNs) against infections has not been established yet. Because donor-specific blood transfusion induces anti-donor class I MHC antibody production in splenectomized rats, we examined the mechanism and significance of this response. Among the donor blood components, T cells were the most efficient immunogens, inducing recipient T cell and B cell proliferative responses not only in the spleen, but also in the peripheral and gut LNs. Donor T cells soon migrated to the splenic T cell area and the LNs, with a temporary significant increase in recipient NK cells. XCR1+ resident dendritic cells (DCs), but not XCR1- DCs, selectively phagocytosed donor class I MHC+ fragments after 1 day. After 1.5 days, both DC subsets formed clusters with recipient CD4+ T cells, which proliferated within these clusters. Inhibition of donor T cell migration or depletion of NK cells by pretreatment with pertussis toxin or anti-asialoGM1 antibody, respectively, significantly suppressed DC phagocytosis and subsequent immune responses. Three allogeneic strains with different NK activities had the same response but with different intensity. Donor T cell proliferation was not required, indicating that the graft vs. host reaction is dispensable. Intravenous transfer of antigen-labeled and mitotic inhibitor-treated allogeneic, but not syngeneic, T cells induced a polytopical antibody response to labeled antigens in the LNs of splenectomized rats. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism of alloresponses polytopically in the secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) induced by allogeneic T cells. Donor T cells behave as self-migratory antigen ferries to be delivered to resident XCR1+ DCs with negligible commitment of migratory DCs. Allogeneic T cells may be clinically applicable as vaccine vectors for polytopical prophylactic antibody production even in asplenic or hyposplenic individuals.