Silk fibroin produced by the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been studied widely as a substrate for tissue engineering applications because of its mechanical robustness and biocompatibility. However, it is often difficult to precisely tune silk fibroin's biological properties due to the lack of easy, reliable, and versatile methodologies for decorating it with functional molecules such as those of drugs, polymers, peptides, and enzymes necessary for specific applications. In this study we applied an azido-functionalized silk fibroin, AzidoSilk, produced by a state-of-the-art biotechnology, genetic code expansion, to produce silk fibroin decorated with cell-repellent polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains for controlling the cell adhesion property of silk fibroin film. Azido groups can act as selective handles for chemical reactions such as a strain-promoted azido-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC), known as a click chemistry reaction. We found that azido groups in AzidoSilk film were selectively decorated with PEG chains using SPAAC. The PEG-decorated film demonstrated decreased cell adhesion depending on the lengths of the PEG chains. Azido groups in AzidoSilk can be decomposed by UV irradiation. By partially decomposing azido groups in AzidoSilk film in a spatially controlled manner using photomasks, cells could be spatially arranged on the film. These results indicated that SPAAC could be an easy, reliable, and versatile methodology to produce silk fibroin substrates having adequate biological properties.