MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate gene expression and modulate cellular differentiation. MicroRNA-9/9* (miR-9/9*) and microRNA-124 (miR-124) are highly expressed in the central nervous system. In vivo function of miR-9/9* and miR-124 has been investigated in detail, whereas there remain some discrepancies regarding neural development. To this end, we electroporated miR-9/9*, miR-124 or miR-9/9*/124 expression plasmids into neonatal retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in vivo and analyzed the fate of electroporated cells. Both miR-9/9* and miR-124 reduced the number of SOX9- and GS-positive cells and increased that of TUBB3-positive cells in the postnatal day 14 retina. No major effects on the proliferation and apoptosis of the electroporated cells were detected at least postnatal day 3. These indicated that miR-9/9* and miR-124 influence the cell fate of glial cells, thereby inducing their differentiation into neurons. Moreover, we found this cell fate modulation was occurred in RPCs indicating high-level expression of miRNA, but not in the low level. Our results strongly suggest that high-level miRNA overexpression is essential for directing cell fate by miR-9/9* and miR-124 interference.