Silk fibroin (SF), which offers the benefits of biosafety, biocompatibility, and mechanical strength, has potential for use as a good biomedical material, especially in the tissue engineering field. This study investigated the use of SF biomaterials as a wound dressing compared to commercially available collagen materials. After human fibroblasts (WI-38) were cultured on both films and sponges, their cell motilities and gene expressions related to wound repair and tissue reconstruction were evaluated. Compared to the collagen film (Col film), the SF film induced higher cell motility; higher expressions of genes were observed on the SF film. Extracellular matrix production-related genes were up-regulated in WI-38 fibroblasts cultured on the SF sponges. These results suggest that SF-based biomaterials can accelerate wound healing and tissue reconstruction. They can be useful biomaterials for functional wound dressings.