RRC ID 64132
Author Xu M, Sivak JG, McCanna DJ.
Title Neutralization of the eye and skin irritant benzalkonium chloride using UVC radiation.
Journal Cutan Ocul Toxicol
Abstract PURPOSE:Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a widely used disinfectant and preservative which is effective against a wide range of viruses (e.g. SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2), bacteria and fungi. However, it is toxic to the eye and skin. This study investigated the neutralization of BAK using ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation as an effort to reduce BAK toxicity potential.
METHODS:BAK solutions were irradiated with a germicidal UVC lamp at various doses. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) were then exposed to the UVC-irradiated BAK solutions for 5 minutes. After exposure, the cultures were assessed for metabolic activity using PrestoBlue; for cell viability using confocal microscopy with viability dyes; and for tight junction proteins using immunofluorescence staining for zonula occludens (ZO)-1.
RESULTS:UVC radiation reduced BAK toxicity on cell metabolic activity in a dose-dependent manner. When the solution depth of BAK was 1.7 mm, the UVC doses needed to completely neutralize the toxicity of BAK 0.005% and 0.01% were 2.093 J/cm2 and 8.374 J/cm2, respectively. The cultures treated with UVC-neutralized BAK showed similar cell metabolic activity and cell viability to those treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (p = 0.806 ∼ 1.000). The expression of ZO-1 was greatly disturbed by untreated BAK; in contrast, ZO-1 proteins were well maintained after exposure to UVC-neutralized BAK.
CONCLUSIONS:Our study demonstrates that the cell toxicity of BAK can be neutralized by UVC radiation, which provides a unique way of detoxifying BAK residues. This finding may be of great value in utilizing the antimicrobial efficacy of BAK (e.g. fighting against SARS-CoV-2) while minimizing its potential hazards to human health and the environment.
Volume 40(2)
Pages 78-84
Published 2021-6-1
DOI 10.1080/15569527.2021.1902339
PMID 33771058
MeSH Benzalkonium Compounds / adverse effects* Benzalkonium Compounds / radiation effects Benzimidazoles Cell Survival / drug effects Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation Epithelium, Corneal / drug effects Epithelium, Corneal / ultrastructure Eye / drug effects* Fluorescent Dyes Humans Microscopy, Confocal Skin / drug effects* Ultraviolet Rays
IF 1.385
Human and Animal Cells HCE-T(RCB2280)