Cadmium (Cd) is an element that is nonessential and extremely toxic to both plants and human beings. Soil contaminated with Cd has adverse impacts on crop yields and threatens human health via the food chain. Cultivation of low-Cd cultivars has been of particular interest and is one of the most cost-effective and promising approaches to minimize human dietary intake of Cd. Low-Cd crop cultivars should meet particular criteria, including acceptable yield and quality, and their edible parts should have Cd concentrations below maximum permissible concentrations for safe consumption, even when grown in Cd-contaminated soil. Several low-Cd cereal cultivars and genotypes have been developed worldwide through cultivar screening and conventional breeding. Molecular markers are powerful in facilitating the selection of low-Cd cereal cultivars. Modern molecular breeding technologies may have great potential in breeding programs for the development of low-Cd cultivars, especially when coupled with conventional breeding. In this review, we provide a synthesis of low-Cd cereal breeding.