Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome) is thought to have emerged through natural hybridization between Triticum turgidum L. (AABB genome) and Aegilops tauschii Coss. (DD genome). Hybridization barriers and doubling of the trihaploid F1 hybrids' genome (ABD) via unreduced gamete fusion had key roles in the process. However, how T. turgidum, the maternal progenitor, was involved in these mechanisms remains unknown. An artificial cross-experiment using 46 cultivated and 31 wild T. turgidum accessions and a single Ae. tauschii tester with a very short genetic distance to the common wheat D genome was conducted. Cytological and quantitative trait locus analyses of F1 hybrid genome doubling were performed. The crossability and ability to cause hybrid inviability did not greatly differ between the cultivars and wild accessions. The ability to cause hybrid genome doubling was higher in the cultivars. Three novel T. turgidum loci for hybrid genome doubling, which influenced unreduced gamete production in F1 hybrids, were identified. Cultivated T. turgidum might have increased the probability of the emergence of common wheat through its enhanced ability to cause genome doubling in F1 hybrids with Ae. tauschii. The ability enhancement might have involved alterations at a relatively small number of loci.