Silk cocoons obtained from silkworms are the primary source of commercial silk, making the silkworm an economically important insect. However, the silk industry suffers significant losses due to various virus infections. Bombyx mori bidensovirus (BmBDV) is one of the pathogens that cause flacherie disease in silkworms. Most silkworm strains die after BmBDV infection. However, certain silkworm strains show resistance to the virus, which is determined by a single recessive gene, nsd-2. The +nsd-2 gene (allele of nsd-2; the susceptibility gene) encodes a putative amino acid transporter expressed only in the insect's midgut, where BmBDV can infect, suggesting that this membrane protein may function as a receptor for BmBDV. Interestingly, the expression analysis revealed no changes in the +nsd-2 gene expression levels in virus-uninfected silkworms, whereas the gene expression drastically decreased in the virus-infected silkworm. This condition indicates that the host factor's expression, the putative virus receptor, is affected by BmBDV infection. It has recently been reported that the expression levels of some host genes encoding cuticle, antioxidant, and immune response-related proteins were significantly regulated by BmBDV infection. In this review, we discuss the host response against virus infection based on our knowledge and long-term research experience in this field.