RRC ID 66211
Author Slipski CJ, Jamieson TR, Zhanel GG, Bay DC.
Title Riboswitch-Associated Guanidinium-Selective Efflux Pumps Frequently Transmitted on Proteobacterial Plasmids Increase Escherichia coli Biofilm Tolerance to Disinfectants.
Journal J Bacteriol
Abstract Members of the small multidrug resistance (SMR) efflux pump family known as SugE (recently renamed Gdx) are known for their narrow substrate selectivity to small guanidinium (Gdm+) compounds and disinfectant quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Gdx members have been identified on multidrug resistance plasmids in Gram-negative bacilli, but their functional role remains unclear, as few have been characterized. Here, we conducted a survey of sequenced proteobacterial plasmids that encoded one or more SugE/Gdx sequences in an effort to (i) identify the most frequently represented Gdx member(s) on these plasmids and their sequence diversity, (ii) verify if Gdx sequences possess a Gdm+ riboswitch that regulates their translation similarly to chromosomally encoded Gdx members, and (iii) determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the most predominate Gdx member to various QACs and antibiotics in Escherichia coli strains BW25113 and KAM32. The results of this study determined 14 unique SugE sequences, but only one Gdx sequence, annotated as "SugE(p)," predominated among the >140 plasmids we surveyed. Enterobacterales plasmids carrying sugE(p) possessed a guanidine II riboswitch similar to the upstream region of E. coligdx Cloning and expression of sugE(p), gdx, and emrE sequences into a low-copy-number expression vector (pMS119EH) revealed significant increases in QAC resistance to a limited range of detergent-like QACs only when gdx and sugE(p) transformants were grown as biofilms. These findings suggest that sugE(p) presence on proteobacterial plasmids may be driven by species that frequently encounter Gdm+ and QAC exposure.IMPORTANCE This study characterized the function of antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes attributed to plasmid-encoded guanidinium-selective small multidrug resistance (Gdm/SugE) efflux pumps. These sequences are frequently monitored as biocide resistance markers in antimicrobial resistance surveillance studies. Our findings reveal that enterobacterial gdm sequences transmitted on plasmids possess a guanidine II riboswitch, which restricts transcript translation in the presence of guanidinium. Cloning and overexpression of this gdm sequence revealed that it confers higher resistance to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) disinfectants (which possess guanidium moieties) when grown as biofilms. Since biofilms are commonly eradicated with QAC-containing compounds, the presence of this gene on plasmids and its biofilm-specific resistance are a growing concern for clinical and food safety prevention measures.
Volume 202(23)
Published 2020-11-4
DOI 10.1128/JB.00104-20
PII JB.00104-20
PMID 32928929
PMC PMC7648145
MeSH Biofilms / drug effects* Disinfectants / pharmacology* Drug Resistance, Bacterial / drug effects Escherichia coli / drug effects* Escherichia coli / genetics Escherichia coli / physiology Escherichia coli Proteins / genetics Escherichia coli Proteins / metabolism Guanidine / metabolism* Membrane Transport Proteins / genetics Membrane Transport Proteins / metabolism Microbial Sensitivity Tests Plasmids / genetics* Plasmids / metabolism Proteobacteria / genetics* Quaternary Ammonium Compounds / pharmacology* Riboswitch / drug effects*
IF 3.006
Prokaryotes E. coli Keio collection