Under stressful conditions, Escherichia coli forms biofilm for survival by sensing a variety of environmental conditions. CsgD, the master regulator of biofilm formation, controls cell aggregation by directly regulating the synthesis of Curli fimbriae. In agreement of its regulatory role, as many as 14 transcription factors (TFs) have so far been identified to participate in regulation of the csgD promoter, each monitoring a specific environmental condition or factor. In order to identify the whole set of TFs involved in this typical multi-factor promoter, we performed in this study 'promoter-specific transcription-factor' (PS-TF) screening in vitro using a set of 198 purified TFs (145 TFs with known functions and 53 hitherto uncharacterized TFs). A total of 48 TFs with strong binding to the csgD promoter probe were identified, including 35 known TFs and 13 uncharacterized TFs, referred to as Y-TFs. As an attempt to search for novel regulators, in this study we first analysed a total of seven Y-TFs, including YbiH, YdcI, YhjC, YiaJ, YiaU, YjgJ and YjiR. After analysis of curli fimbriae formation, LacZ-reporter assay, Northern-blot analysis and biofilm formation assay, we identified at least two novel regulators, repressor YiaJ (renamed PlaR) and activator YhjC (renamed RcdB), of the csgD promoter.