Reference - Detail
|Author||Shinjyo N, Nakayama H, Li L, Ishimaru K, Hikosaka K, Suzuki N, Yoshida H, Norose K.|
|Title||Hypericum perforatum extract and hyperforin inhibit the growth of neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii and infection-induced inflammatory responses of glial cells in vitro.|
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Hypericum perforatum L. has been widely used as a natural antidepressant. However, it is unknown whether it is effective in treating infection-induced neuropsychiatric disorders.
AIM OF THE STUDY:In order to evaluate the effectiveness of H. perforatum against infection with neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which has been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders, this study investigated the anti-Toxoplasma activity using in vitro models.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:Dried alcoholic extracts were prepared from three Hypericum species: H. perforatum, H. erectum, and H. ascyron. H. perforatum extract was further separated by solvent-partitioning. Hyperforin and hypericin levels in the extracts and fractions were analyzed by high resolution LC-MS. Anti-Toxoplasma activities were tested in vitro, using cell lines (Vero and Raw264), murine primary mixed glia, and primary neuron-glia. Toxoplasma proliferation and stage conversion were analyzed by qPCR. Infection-induced damages to the host cells were analyzed by Sulforhodamine B cytotoxicity assay (Vero) and immunofluorescent microscopy (neurons). Infection-induced inflammatory responses in glial cells were analysed by qPCR and immunofluorescent microscopy.
RESULTS:Hyperforin was identified only in H. perforatum among the three tested species, whereas hypericin was present in H. perforatum and H. erectum. H. perforatum extract and hyperforin-enriched fraction, as well as hyperforin, exhibited significant anti-Toxoplasma property as well as inhibitory activity against infection-induced inflammatory responses in glial cells. In addition, H. perforatum-derived hyperforin-enriched fraction restored neuro-supportive environment in mixed neuron-glia culture.
CONCLUSIONS:H. perforatum and its major constituent hyperforin are promising anti-Toxoplasma agents that could potentially protect neurons and glial cells against infection-induced damages. Further study is warranted to establish in vivo efficacy.
|MeSH||Animals Chlorocebus aethiops Coccidiostats / isolation & purification Coccidiostats / pharmacology* Cytokines Hypericum* / chemistry Inflammation Mediators / metabolism Mice Mice, Inbred C57BL Neuroglia / drug effects* Neuroglia / metabolism Neuroglia / parasitology Neuroglia / pathology Neuroprotective Agents / isolation & purification Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology* Phloroglucinol / analogs & derivatives* Phloroglucinol / isolation & purification Phloroglucinol / pharmacology Plant Extracts / isolation & purification Plant Extracts / pharmacology* RAW 264.7 Cells Terpenes / isolation & purification Terpenes / pharmacology* Toxoplasma / drug effects* Toxoplasma / growth & development Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral / drug therapy* Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral / metabolism Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral / parasitology Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral / pathology Vero Cells|
|Human and Animal Cells||RAW 264(RCB0535)|