RRC ID 70133
Author Wu D, Yang C, Zhang X, Hou X, Zhang S, Dai X, Zhang X, Igarashi Y, Luo F.
Title Algicidal effect of tryptoline against Microcystis aeruginosa: Excess reactive oxygen species production mediated by photosynthesis.
Journal Sci Total Environ
Abstract Cyanobacterial blooms significantly decrease water quality and can damage ecosystems and, as such, require efficient control methods. Algicidal bacteria and their associated substances are promising tools for controlling cyanobacterial blooms; however, their specific algicidal mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, the current study sought to investigate the algicidal mechanism of tryptoline (1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9 h-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) against Microcystis aeruginosa, with a specific focus on the contribution made by reactive oxygen species (ROS), the underlying mechanisms of ROS increase, as well as the photosystem response. Results show that the algicidal ratio of tryptoline significantly and positively correlates with algal ROS. Moreover, 93.79% of the algicidal ratio variation is attributed to ROS in the tryptoline group, while only 47.75% can be attributed to ROS in the tryptoline + N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) group, where ROS are partially scavenged by NAC. In the presence of tryptoline, algicidal effect and ROS levels were significantly enhanced in the presence of light as compared to those in the dark (P < 0.001). Hence, the increase in ROS production attributed to tryptoline is primarily affected by the presence of light and photosynthesis. Additionally, tryptoline significantly reduces Fv/Fm, PIABS, ETo/RC, and the expression of psaB and psbA genes related to photosynthesis, while increasing Vj and DIo/RC (P < 0.05). These results suggest that tryptoline hinders algal photosynthesis by significantly decreasing photosynthetic efficiency and carbon assimilation, inhibiting photochemical electron transfer, and increasing closed reaction centers and energy loss. Moreover, following partial blockade of the photosynthetic electron transfer from QA to QB by diuron (3-(3-4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea), the ROS of algae exposed to tryptoline is significantly decreased. Thus, tryptoline inhibits electron transfer downstream of QA, which increase the number of escaping electron and thereby increase ROS generation. Collectively, this study describes the algicidal mechanism of tryptoline against M. aeruginosa and highlights the critical factors associated with induction of algicidal activity.
Volume 806(Pt 4)
Pages 150719
Published 2022-2-1
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150719
PII S0048-9697(21)05797-1
PMID 34606873
MeSH Carbolines Ecosystem Harmful Algal Bloom Microcystis* Photosynthesis Reactive Oxygen Species
IF 6.551
Algae NIES-843