Cognitive dysfunction is among the hallmark symptoms of Neurofibromatosis 1, and accordingly, loss of the Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of Neurofibromin 1 (dNf1) precipitates associative learning deficits. However, the affected circuitry in the adult CNS remained unclear and the compromised mechanisms debatable. Although the main evolutionarily conserved function attributed to Nf1 is to inactivate Ras, decreased cAMP signaling on its loss has been thought to underlie impaired learning. Using mixed sex populations, we determine that dNf1 loss results in excess GABAergic signaling to the central for associative learning mushroom body (MB) neurons, apparently suppressing learning. dNf1 is necessary and sufficient for learning within these non-MB neurons, as a dAlk and Ras1-dependent, but PKA-independent modulator of GABAergic neurotransmission. Surprisingly, we also uncovered and discuss a postsynaptic Ras1-dependent, but dNf1-independnet signaling within the MBs that apparently responds to presynaptic GABA levels and contributes to the learning deficit of the mutants.