RRC ID 72259
Author Misawa N, Satomi Y, Kondo K, Yokoyama A, Kajiwara S, Saito T, Ohtani T, Miki W.
Title Structure and functional analysis of a marine bacterial carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster and astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway proposed at the gene level.
Journal J Bacteriol
Abstract A carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster for the production of astaxanthin was isolated from the marine bacterium Agrobacterium aurantiacum. This cluster contained five carotenogenic genes with the same orientation, which were designated crtW, crtZ, crtY, crtI, and crtB. The stop codons of individual crt genes except for crtB overlapped the start codons of the following crt genes. Escherichia coli transformants carrying the Erwinia uredovora carotenoid biosynthesis genes provide suitable substrates for carotenoid biosynthesis. The functions of the five crt genes of A. aurantiacum were determined through chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses of the pigments accumulated in some E. coli transformants carrying various combinations of the E. uredovora and A. aurantiacum carotenogenic genes. As a result, the astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway is proposed for the first time at the level of the biosynthesis genes. The crtW and crtZ gene products, which mediated the oxygenation reactions from beta-carotene to astaxanthin, were found to have low substrate specificity. This allowed the production of many presumed intermediates of astaxanthin, i.e., adonixanthin, phoenicoxanthin (adonirubin), canthaxanthin, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, and 3-hydroxyechinenone.
Volume 177(22)
Pages 6575-84
Published 1995-11-1
DOI 10.1128/jb.177.22.6575-6584.1995
PMID 7592436
PMC PMC177511
MeSH Amino Acid Sequence Base Sequence Carotenoids / analysis Carotenoids / biosynthesis* Carotenoids / chemistry Codon / genetics Erwinia / genetics Escherichia coli / genetics Genes, Bacterial / genetics* Models, Chemical Molecular Sequence Data Multigene Family / genetics* Restriction Mapping Rhizobium / genetics* Sequence Analysis, DNA Substrate Specificity Xanthophylls beta Carotene* / analogs & derivatives*
IF 3.006
DNA material pACCRT-EB (RDB19483) pACCRT-EIB (RDB19484) pACCAR16 delta crtX (RDB19486) pACCAR25 delta crtX (RDB19487)