The stimulus-induced cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) family of transcription factors bind to CREs to regulate diverse cellular responses, including proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), which belongs to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily, is a lymphotropic herpesvirus frequently found in patients with neuroinflammatory diseases. Previous reports implicated the importance of CREs in the HHV-6A life cycle, although the effects of the binding of transcription factors to CREs in viral replication have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the role of the CREB family of transcription factors during HHV-6A replication. We found that HHV-6A infection enhanced phosphorylation of the CREB family members CREB1 and activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1). Knockout (KO) of CREB1 or ATF1 enhanced viral gene expression and viral replication. The increase in viral yields in supernatants from ATF1-KO cells was greater than that in supernatants from CREB1-KO cells. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis showed that sensors of the innate immune system were downregulated in ATF1-KO cells, and mRNAs of beta interferon (IFN-β) and IFN-regulated genes were reduced in these cells infected with HHV-6A. IFN-β treatment of ATF1-KO cells reduced progeny viral yields significantly, suggesting that the enhancement of viral replication was caused by a reduction of IFN-β. Taken together, our results suggest that ATF1 is activated during HHV-6A infection and restricts viral replication via IFN-β induction. IMPORTANCE Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus implicated in Alzheimer's disease, although its role in its pathogenesis has not been confirmed. Here, we showed that the transcription factor ATF1 restricts HHV-6A replication, mediated by IFN-β induction. Our study provides new insights into the role of ATF1 in innate viral immunity and reveals the importance of IFN-β for regulation of HHV-6A replication, which possibly impairs HHV-6A pathogenesis.